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A-Z of ingredients

Our ingredients policy

High performance, quality and safe ingredients are our priority.

Working closely with our ingredient growers, harvesters and providers is very important to us and we really believe it is worth the extra effort when we see the difference our ingredients make to our products.

Responsible sourcing

We are passionate about responsible sourcing. Our botanical and formulation experts balance factors such as performance, sustainability, ethics and organic practices to determine the best source for us to use.

Cruelty-Free International

Animal testing

We never do it and are certified under the Humane Cosmetics Standard to prove it.

Suitable for vegetarians

Where animal by-products are included in our range, they’re restricted only to those obtained without harming the animal – for instance, we do harness the naturally active properties of beeswax, propolis and Manuka honey, but never use carmine, shellac or animal-derived collagen. All of our products are suitable for vegetarians.

Plant oils and extracts

We love plant oils and extracts for their unique chemistry and use them at levels that really make a difference.

Only mineral sunscreens

We only use mineral sun filters, which reflect rather than absorb the sun's UVA and UVB rays. Reflective mineral sunscreens provide effective broad-spectrum UV protection for even the most sensitive of skins.

Genetically engineered ingredients

We never use them.


Some of our formulations are preservative-free. We do use preservatives when absolutely essential for product safety. We use relatively low concentrations of the highest grade, broad-spectrum preservatives and consider natural preservatives wherever possible.

Vitamin E

We only use potent, premium natural source vitamin E.


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Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

Featuring formidable hydrating, soothing and cooling properties, our aloe vera is harvested in the morning to maximise the amount of juice the sword-shaped fronds yield, before being freeze-dried to create a powder.

Avocado Oil (Persea gratissima)

Legendary for its healthy fat content and emollient properties, the avocado is native to Central America. To extract the vitamin-rich, skin-nourishing oil, the succulent flesh of the ripe fruit is squeezed.

Argan Oil (Argania spinosa)

Renowned for its intensely nourishing and hydrating properties, argan is rich in essential fatty acids and antioxidant vitamin E. Native to Morocco, our oil is extracted by pressing the sun-dried, roasted and ground kernels of the plum-sized fruit.

Armoise (Artemisia vulgaris)

Armoise is the common name used when referring to the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris, which is native to temperate regions of Europe and Asia. The plant grows to between 3 and four feet high and has silvery-grey leaves and small yellow button-like flowers. The aerial part of the plant produces an essential oil with a camphorous, fresh and minty aroma that is widely used in perfumery.

Apricot Oil (Prunus armeniaca)

Apricot kernels are crushed to produce this light oil, which is good for mature, dry, sensitive or inflamed skin. Its wonderfully light texture makes it easily absorbed into the epidermis or uppermost levels of the skin. In the Vital Oils Bath Oils organic apricot oil has been used as the carrier for the essential oils.

Apple Fruit Extract (Pyrus malus x domestica)

Used for its ability to promote shine, we source our apples from France, where the vitamin-rich flesh of Idared, Granny Smith and Golden Delicious apples are mechanically pressed to create our extract.

Abyssinian Seed Oil (Crambe Abyssinica)

Lightweight and non-greasy, this oil helps improve the manageability of hair, enhancing shine and strengthening hair fibres. Native to Abyssinia, our oil is pressed from the small yellow and brown seeds of the flowering plant.

Alfalfa seed extract (Medicago sativa)

With its blue-violet flowers blooming in June, alfalfa is rich in skin-nourishing vitamins A, C and E. We source it from a cooperative in France, where the seeds are harvested in September before being macerated in water to create our extract.

Alaria esculenta extract

This brown algae, sourced in Brittany, is rich in essential fatty acids and sterols, making it an effective skin moisturiser. Also known as winged kelp, it demonstrates anti-elastase activity which results in firmer-feeling skin.

Beeswax (Cera alba)

Used for its soothing properties and luxurious texture, our animal-friendly beeswax goes through a special chemical-free filtration process before being used in our products.

Black Pepper Essential Oil (Piper nigrum)

Black Pepper is best known as a culinary spice. The warming benefits of the essential oil are used in aromatherapy for muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, sprains and stiffness; it is also used for colds and flu.

Borage Seed Oil (Borago officinalis)

Renowned for its fantastic moisturising properties, we source our borage from England, where the pure, GLA-rich oil is pressed from the shiny, dark brown seeds of the bright blue flower.


Beta-carotene is one of the orange/yellow pigments responsible for the colour of many fruits and vegetables such as carrots, oranges, apricots. It is also widely found in green leafy vegetables but its colour is masked by the green chlorophyll. This is why when the level of chlorophyll in leaves falls during autumn the leaves turn a reddish colour as the beta-carotene becomes visible. Beta-carotene has antioxidant properties.

Butcher's Broom Extract (Ruscus aculeatus)

This small native shrub looks a bit like holly but actually belongs to the Lily family. It is named Butcher's broom because mature branches were bundled together by butchers to sweep their shops. Extracts from the plant have been used by herbalists in cases of venous insufficiency.

Bitter Orange Oil (Citrus aurantium amara)

Bitter orange has highly fragrant, white flowers which are followed by green fruits that ripen to reddish-orange at maturity. Like other members of the citrus family, trees can have both ripening fruit and flower hanging from their branches at the same time. The flowers, leaves and fruit are all dotted with tiny oil glands from which an array of essential oils is produced. Bitter orange essential oil has a fresh, dry, odour with a lasting, sweet, floral undertone. While notes are reminiscent of bergamot, grapefruit and sweet orange, the dominant scent is unique.

Blue Seakale Extract (Crambe maritima)

Used in our Botanical Shine™ Conditioners for its protective properties, we hand-harvest our blue seakale from sustainable plantations in Brittany, France, where the cabbage-like leaves of the plant are dried then extracted to create our antioxidant-rich ingredient.

Black Cohosh Root Extract (Cimicifuga racemosa)

Used in our Botanical Shine™ Conditioner for fine or oily hair for its inherent moisturising and softening properties, black cohosh is native to Eastern America, where our ingredient is extracted from the mainly wild-harvested roots of the tall, slender plant.

Benzoin Gum (Styrax benzoin)

The source of Siam benzoin is Styrax benzoin, a tropical tree reaching 20 metres with pale green citrus-like leaves with white undersides and nutmeg-sized, hard-shelled fruit. The trees are wounded to produce ‘teardrops’, or pebbles of resin, which harden on exposure to air. This resin, a pathological product made to protect the tree from disease and pests, is the fragrance ingredient Siam benzoin. Sweet, balsamic, vanilla, tasty, and powdery, benzoin brings powerful and suave accents to fragrance as well as having fixative properties.

Basil Essential Oil (Ocimum Basilicum)

Basil oil has a sweet-spicy, fresh aroma, with faint balsamic woody undertones and a lasting sweetness. Named after the Greek word basileus meaning ‘king’, basil arrived in India over 4000 years ago, spreading itself across Asia and finally arriving in Europe where it’s now a popular culinary herb.

Blackcurrant bud (Ribes nigrum)

Blackcurrants grow throughout the world but we source ours from France, collecting just the flower buds for extraction. The olfactive experience is lush, sweet and green, with a fruity note and undertones of red wine.

Bergamot (Citrus aurantium bergamia)

The bergamot we use is grown in Calabria, Italy and the eastern coast of Sicily. This multifaceted essential oil lends a radiant, tangy citrus facet to a fragrance, with an extremely rich, sweet and fruity initial odour, followed by a characteristic herbaceous and balsamic body. Bergamot’s delicate and persistent scent has made it a popular ingredient for perfumery for centuries, and it was a component of the original eau de cologne blend.

Bergamot Essential Oil (Citrus aurantium bergamia)

Bergamot is named after the Italian town of Bergamo where the fruit was originally cultivated. This refreshing essential oil is extracted from the bergamot fruits, and is widely used by aromatherapists to relieve stress, depression and insomnia.

Candelilla Wax (Euphorbia cerifera)

Literally meaning ‘little candle’, the erect waxy stems of the candelilla not only look like candles but are also used as a source of wax to make candles. The plants grow in the extreme heat of the Chihuanhuan Desert in Northern Mexico and produce a waxy covering to protect their stems from being dried out by the fiercely hot sun. The wax collected from the stems can be used to help provide a protective barrier on the skin.

Chamomile Essential Oil (Anthemis nobilis)

Popular for its calming fragrance and soothing properties, we source our chamomile mostly from England, where the pure essential oil is steam distilled from the pretty white flower.

Cypress Essential Oil (Cupressus sempervirens)

This large evergreen tree has been regarded as an ancient symbol of comfort and solace. The woody-evergreen odour of cypress essential oil is similar to pine and juniper berry. It is said to have sedative properties and can help relieve convulsive coughing and similar respiratory problems.

Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)

Clary Sage oil is distilled from the flowering tops and leaves of the plant, which grows best in the Mediterranean region. The oil has a sweet, herbaceous, warm tobacco-like note. It is used in aromatherapy to reduce stress and has an anti-depressant effect. The herb has been used for centuries in many different cultures both as a culinary and medicinal herb. The Egyptians used it to treat infertility, the Romans believed it prolonged life and in the Middle Ages it was said to have a 'miracle' curing power.

Cajuput Essential Oil (Melaleuca cajuputi)

Also called the swamp tea tree, this Indonesian tree has small fragrant white flowers that cluster around a long spike. This invigorating oil is extracted from the leaves and twigs of the tree and has been used by aromatherapists in cases of bronchial and respiratory problems, painful periods and cystitis.

Cedarwood - Virginian Essential Oil (Juniperus virginiana)

This essential oil has a woody odour reminiscent of pencil sharpenings. It is widely used in fine fragrances and aftershave lotions.

Clove Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus)

The clove is well known as a culinary spice. This colourful tree is admired for its beauty as its leaves change gradually throughout the year from yellow to pink to dark metallic green. The essential oil is distilled from the buds and provides a sweet familiar aroma and warming element to essential oil blends.

Cornflower Extract (Centaurea cyanus)

Used for its soothing and cooling properties, we source our cornflower from Europe, where we extract our ingredient from the rich blue flowers of the plant.

Cabreuva Essential Oil (Myrocarpus frondosus)

Cabreuva oil is distilled from the bark of the tree. The tree originates in South America and has very hard wood and is used for furniture making. The chippings from which the oil is extracted are the waste product of the timber mills. The oil has a delicate, sweet, woody-floral scent but has great tenacity and is used as a fixative in perfume blends.

Camphor Essential Oil (Cinnamomum camphora)

Often used for its stimulating properties, camphor is native to China, Taiwan and Japan, and is a key botanical in our Brightening Treatment Mask. To produce our oil, the wood of the Cinnamomum camphora tree is steam-distilled, before the distillate is frozen to leave camphor oil behind.

Cranberry Seed Oil (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

Used in our products for its ability to help improve moisture retention, cranberries are native to the peat wetlands of North America. Rich in skin-plumping essential fatty acids and nourishing vitamin E, our oil is produced by cold-pressing the seeds of the bright, red berries.

Cedarwood - Texan Essential Oil (Juniperus mexicana)

Texan cedarwood is native to the American southwest, growing in a band from Arkansas and Missouri south and west to Oklahoma, Texas and northern Mexico. The invasive propensity of the tree has caused the US Department of Agriculture to pay landowners to remove it to improve the grassland. Once cut and chipped, the wood is sent to distilleries which produce the essential oil through steam distillation. Texan cedarwood essential oil has a sweet, woody, slightly smoky note reminiscent of wood shavings.

Cocoa Butter (Theobroma cacao)

Famous for its excellent emollient properties, we source our cocoa butter from West Africa, where fermented beans of the cocoa tree are roasted, cracked and ground to give a powdery solid called cocoa mass, from which cocoa butter is pressed.

Calendula Extract (Calendula officinalis)

Well-known for its calming and soothing effect on skin, we source our calendula from Egypt, where our ingredient is solvent extracted from the petals of the flower.

Cucumber Extract (Cucumis sativus)

Loved for its intensely soothing, cooling and hydrating properties, we source our cucumber from within the UK, where our ingredient is produced from the fresh, green flesh of the vegetable.

Cardamom Essential Oil (Elettaria cardamomum)

The spice cardamom is the seed of Eletteria cardamomum, the cardamom. Closely related to ginger, cardamom has green, sword-shaped leaves and white flowers with pink veining. Considered to be the world’s third most expensive spice, cardamom is most commonly sold in the pod (whole or split) as seeds rapidly lose freshness outside the pod, and ground cardamom loses its flavour quickly. Cardamom essential oil has a warm, spicy, aromatic top note that becomes woody and balsamic, then sweet and almost floral on the dryout.

Coriander Essential Oil (Coriandrum sativum)

Coriander is native to southern Europe and the western Mediterranean region. The essential oil is distilled from the dried fruits (seeds) of the plant and has a sweet, musky, spicy, woody aroma. As the seeds dry they develop an aromatic scent and flavour and this has been used to advantage for thousands of years. The seeds have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs and reference was made to them in ancient Sanscrit writings. The ancient Romans used the spice to preserve their meat.

Carnauba Wax (Copernicia cerifera)

This natural plant wax comes from the leaves of the carnauba tree native to South America. Its leaves are covered by a waxy coating which helps them tolerate drought, the drier the conditions, the more wax is produced. This wax can be used to help provide a protective barrier on the skin.

Cedarwood - Chinese Essential Oil (Cupressus funebris)

The essential oil produced from this evergreen tree has a woody, smoky odour. It has natural fixative properties which mean it can be added to a fragrance to help it last longer.

Clementine Essential Oil (Citrus reticulata 'clementine')

The clementine is a member of the large family of small citrus fruits. Clementine oil is produced by expression of the peel and aromatherapists classify the sweet essential oil as both extremely uplifting and balancing.

Comfrey Extract (Symphytum officinale)

Rich in skin-calming and mild astringent properties, comfrey is also an excellent emollient. Native to Europe, our ingredient is extracted from the leaf of the plant.

Carrot Seed Essential Oil (Daucus carota)

The carrot’s umbrella-shaped clusters of small, white to green-yellow flowers are followed by small, oval, dull brown fruits commonly referred to as seeds. The oil obtained from these seeds has a distinctive sweet-spicy, earthy fragrance and is commonly used in chypre and oriental perfumes.


Coco-caprylate/caprate is a light emollient oil wholly derived from Coconut and Palm oils. It’s lightness and exceptional spreading power makes it an ideal base oil when an almost dry non-greasy finish is desired.

Cotton extract (Gossypium herbaceum)

Cotton sugars create a barrier over the fibres of each cotton seed to protect them from the elements. Cotton extract works in the same way on hair, forming a barrier that works to improve the smoothness of each hair shaft. Smooth hair reflects more light in the same direction resulting in hair that appears glossier and healthier.

Clove bud oil (Eugenia caryophyllus)

Native to the Maluku islands in Indonesia, Eugenia caryophyllus is a small evergreen tree with large leaves and abundant red flowers held in terminal clusters. It is for these flowers, or more specifically the buds, that these trees are renowned and grown: the spice clove is the dried flower bud of Eugenia. Clove bud essential oil has an unusual fresh, fruity top note with an acetic odour that makes it refreshing and different from clove oils derived from leaf and stem. This top note combines with a powerful sweet-spicy note for which the oil is principally used.

Cinnamon Leaf Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)

Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a medium-size tree native to the island of Sri Lanka, which remains the major producer. Cinnamon has been known and prized as a spice and fragrance ingredient for at least four millennia: there is evidence of cinnamon being shipped to Egypt as early as 2000BC. Cinnamon is among the handful of plants mentioned in the Bible several times as a fragrancing ingredient and cinnamon leaves are a by-product of the production of the bark quills for spice. Cinnamon leaf essential oil has spicy and warm, mouthwatery undertones with a crispy note.

Cypriol Root Oil (Cyperus scariosus)

Cyperus scariosus, a sedge closely related to papyrus, from which the Egyptians made writing material, grows wild in the Madhya Pradesh region of India. The roots of this sedge are prized for the essential oil known as cypriol which is distilled from them. Cypriol brings woody, texturised, humid and mossy undertones to fragrance. It is used for its dry, woody-earthy, slightly spicy odour that is tenacious and consistent once the fresh top note dries down.

Coconut Oil (Coco nucifera)

Renowned for its moisturising and smoothing properties, we source our coconut oil from the Kenyan coast, where the unrefined, high-quality oil is cold-pressed from the flesh of a mixture of wild-harvested and plantation-grown coconuts using a sustainable direct micro expelling process, within an hour of the coconut being opened.

Cyperus (Cupressus sempervirens (cyperus) absolute)

Cypress essential oil is distilled from the twigs of cypress, a very narrow, erect evergreen from the Mediterranean. Reminiscent of pine needles, the sweet balsamic, refreshing note of cypress absolute brings a sexy, woody note to the fragrance. The plant material for the essential oil in Botanical Essence No.100 is harvested in France where clippings from the annual autumn pruning of trees in plantations, as well as branches dropped in storms, are collected for distillation.

Clove leaf (Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) leaf oil)

The spice clove is the dried flower bud of an evergreen tree, and is cultivated in Indonesia, as well as Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Madagascar and Zanzibar. Clove leaf essential oil has a slightly sweet, dry, woody note that is sometimes described as having a burnt, bread-like aspect. It is greener and less sticky than clove oils derived from bud and stem. The leaves used in Botanical Essence No.100 are sourced from Madagascar where they are a subsidiary crop of the spice production.

Cedrat (Citrus medica)

A radiant, tangy and zesty citrus. It has an extremely rich and fruity initial fragrance followed by a characteristic herbaceous and balsamic body.

Chamomile Extract (Anthemis nobilis)

Legendary for its skin-soothing properties, the flowers of this aromatic perennial are harvested in England in the summer, before the ingredient is solvent extracted from the fragrant flower.

Damask Rose Water (Rosa damascena)

The damask rose is the oldest of all the rose varieties and produces an exquisitely scented floral water which cools and moisturises the skin leaving it feeling fresh and hydrated.


Otherwise known as pro-vitamin B5, this B vitamin is necessary for the normal functioning of the skin and has a moisturising effect. It also helps stimulate cellular renewal.

Damask Rose Flower Oil (Rosa damascena)

Renowned for its dreamy, sensual fragrance – a key note in our Botanical Essence™ fine fragrances, we source our Damask roses from a family-run farm in Isparta, Turkey. Here, the last remaining artisan copper still in the whole of Turkey is used to exclusively obtain our pure flower oil through a variety of methods – including extraction, hydro-distillation, distillation, steam-stripping and ion exchange of freshly-harvested rose petals.

Daikon Radish Seed Oil (Raphanus sativus)

This oil is used for its lightweight, non-greasy moisturising properties. We source our Daikon radish from the Willamette Valley, in Oregon, USA, where the nourishing oil is pressed from the rounded brown seeds of the radish pod.

Dragon’s Blood Extract Dragon’s Blood Extract

Sustainably sourced from Peru, dragon’s blood extract is rich in proanthocyanidins, which act as antioxidants, and a biologically active alkaloid called taspine, which is known to help barrier function properties.

Eucalyptus Essential Oil (Eucalyptus globulus)

Renowned for its purifying properties and invigorating aroma, we source our eucalyptus from China, where our essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the fast-growing eucalyptus tree.

Eyebright Extract (Euphrasia officinalis)

Legendary for its soothing and refreshing properties, and rich in tannins, flavonoids and glycosides, our eyebright is wild-harvested in Bulgaria, where the aerial parts of the plant are macerated in water for 7 days to create our extract.

East African Shea Butter (Vitellaria paradoxa nilotica)

This natural moisturiser comes from the kernel of the fruit of the East African shea tree: our kernels are sourced from a women’s collective group working in forests around Lira in northern Uganda. Shea butter enhances the barrier function of the epidermis, reducing the trans-epidermal water loss, retaining moisture and improving the elasticity of the skin.

Echinacea Extract (Echinacea angustifolia/purpurea)

Used for its toning and conditioning properties, Echinacea is native to North America. We source our skin-smoothing extract from within the United Kingdom, where the plant is harvested in July and August before the ingredient is extracted and micro-filtered from the flowers, leaves and stem.

Elemi Gum (Canarium luzonicum)

A tropical tree native to the Philippines, Canarium luzonicum can grow up to 30 meters (98 feet) high and is tapped for its resin. Elemi, as the resin is known, has millennia of use as a fragrance ingredient. Elemi is a resin with a crispy fresh spicy hook, like black pepper prolonged into resin notes, adding delicate facets to woods and balms. It combines a fresh, lemony, pepper top note with a greener, woody, balsamic dry-down that retains a sweet spiciness.

Elderflower (Sambucus nigra)

Revered for its soothing properties, elderflower extract has been used to improve the complexion for centuries and was used by the ancient Egyptians to help even the appearance of skin tone. Sourced from Eastern Europe, the fragrant blossom is wild-harvested once a year in early summer whilst it is in bloom.

Frankincense Essential Oil (Boswellia carteri)

Frankincense is an aromatic resin collected as droplets from the trunk of the tree. It is widely used as incense and the essential oil is produced by distillation of the resinous droplets. Frankincense essential oil is used by aromatherpists for anxiety and stress related conditions and to restore a sense of equilibrium.

Foaming agents

Derived from coconut and palm oils our foaming agents are especially mild with a rich luxurious foam to leave the skin gently cleansed and soft.

Galbanum Essential Oil (Ferula galbaniflua)

Galbanum is a resin collected from cuts in the stems of these large plants from the same botanical family as fennel and dill. It can be distilled to produce an essential oil which has a powerful, green-woody aroma that lingers in the air long after the top has been put back on the bottle! Its natural fixative properties help to maintain the fragrance of a blend for a longer period.

Grapefruit Essential Oil (Citrus grandis)

The name grapefruit originated because the fruits grow in clusters that resemble grapes. An uplifting and reviving oil it is used by aromatherapists for detoxifying.

Green Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis)

We source our green tea from China and Japan, where our powerful, antioxidant-rich ingredient is extracted from the shiny green leaves of the plant.

Ginkgo Extract (Ginkgo biloba)

Also known as maidenhair tree, these trees are thought to be the oldest on the planet, first growing 190 million years ago! Native to China, the trees are widely cultivated for their leaves, which are a well known herbal remedy when taken in tablet form for poor memory and dementia. Herbalists have also used extracts on the skin for their stimulating and tonic properties.

Green Clay (Kaolin)

Well-known for its ability to absorb excess oil from the skin, we use green clay to help balance and smooth.

Geranium Essential Oil (Pelargonium graveolens)

Adored for its fresh, floral rose-like fragrance, we source our evergreen, perennial geraniums mostly from Egypt, where our pure essential oil is steam-distilled from the branches the plant.


The glycerin we use is always vegetable derived. It is a humectant (attracts water), drawing atmospheric water onto the skin to aid hydration.

Green algae (Chlorella vulgaris)

Chlorella is a single-celled, spherical, green algae that has been widely used for scientific studies. It reproduces rapidly asexually, fueled by carbon dioxide, water, sun, and a small amount of minerals. High levels of chlorophyll and vitamins have lead to chlorella being sold as a supplement, marketed as an alternative to spirulina or wheatgrass. We use green algae in a ferment with white lupin protein as part of a blend for its skin-toning and firming properties.

Grapeseed Extract (Vitis vinifera)

Renowned for its skin-toning properties and ability to help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, we source our grape seed from France, where the ingredient is extracted from the tiny brown seeds of the plant.

Green Mineral Silt (Silt)

This natural ingredient is rich in mineral salts, such as calcium, iron and magnesium which help achieve fresher, firmer looking skin.

Guaiacwood oil (Bulnesia sarmientoi )

Bulnesia sarmientoi is a South American tree native to the Gran Chaco region on the borders of Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. Distilled from woodchip as a secondary product of timber production, the tea rose-like note of guaiacwood essential oil is most often described, but the rosy, woody odour is underpinned with a smoky note. Guaiacwood brings a nervous woody impact with a smoky character, reminiscent of black tea, to fragrances.

Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)

Obtained from the guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), guar gum has thickening properties. A derivative guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride is an excellent conditioner leaving a silky feel to skin and hair.


Aromatic and spicy, ginger has a multitude of therapeutic properties when ingested, however its essential oil adds an energising and warming flourish to fragrance.

Hops Extract (Humulus lupulus)

Used for its mild astringent properties, we source our hops from the United Kingdom and Germany, where the leafy green hop strobiles are harvested in August and September before they are fully ripe. The strobiles are then dried in the shade before being solvent extracted to create our extract.

Horse Chestnut Extract (Aesculus hippocastanum)

This grand tree is easily identified by its distinctive leaves and conkers which are prized by children. Its use was first documented by herbalists in the 1500’s and extracts of the seed have astringent and stimulating properties.

Hazelnut Oil (Corylus avellana)

Featuring excellent emollient properties and an ability to keep skin soft and supple, the hazelnut is thought to be native to Asia, where the oil is extracted from the nut.

Haitian vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides)

Sourced from Haiti, the leading producer of vetiver, this light, golden oil boasts a dry, woody scent with earthy, smoky and nut inflexions. It is uprooted by hand after 1 year and taken to a local factory, where the roots are dried and cleaned before being steam distilled. Our fragrance house has initiated a new programme to improve traceability and environmental practices from root to oil, while also improving vetiver quality in the long term and supporting local communities.

Ivy Extract (Hedera helix)

Highly regarded by the Greeks and Romans, this climbing plant was dedicated to Bacchus, the god of wine and was often tied to the head as it was thought to prevent intoxication! This belief led English taverns to display the sign of an ivy bush over their doors. Ivy extract has stimulating properties and is an excellent skin tonic.

Indian jasmine (Jasminum sambac (jasmine) absolute)

Indian jasmine brings a complex, sensual, romantic note to the fragrance. This exquisitely fragranced floral absolute is less animalic and more petally than the absolute obtained from Egyptian jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum).The buds of the night-blooming evergreen climber are hand harvested in the early morning based on colour: only white buds are selected as green ones may not be fragrant. Buds are picked in preference to open blossoms as more blossoms are required to make the same amount of fragrance material, and they lose their fragrance more rapidly after picking.

Jojoba Beads (Jojoba esters)

Prized for their gentle exfoliating action, jojoba beads leave skin clearer, brighter and more polished. To create our naturally biodegradable beads that are kind to the environment, pale yellow jojoba oil is hydrogenated to create a hard white wax, which is then warmed and dropped from a height to create smooth spheres.

Jasmine Absolute (Jasminum officinale)

Jasmine is considered to be one of the most important flowers used in perfumery. Its intense floral aroma helps produce feelings of optimism, confidence, euphoria and it can invigorate and help lift depression. A few drops make a luxurious bath oil.

Jojoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis (seed) oil)

Jojoba oil is used for its moisturising properties. A perennial, evergreen shrub native to the Sonoran desert of Mexico, Arizona and California, Simmondsia chinensis is able to withstand harsh, arid environments and live for up to 200 years. Jojoba shrubs are generally dense and can grow up to three metres tall, but growth can be stunted by extreme drought and continuous grazing by animals.

Jasmine (Jasminum)

The buds of this night-blooming evergreen climber are hand harvested in the early morning based on colour: only white buds are selected as green ones may not be fragrant. Buds are picked in preference to open blossoms as more blossoms are required to make the same amount of fragrance material, and they lose their fragrance more rapidly after picking.

Jujube Extract (Chinese Date)

Used in our Superskin™ Face Serum for its antioxidant properties and high levels of vitamin C, we source our Jujube, also known as Chinese date, from Turkey, where the extract is produced from the seed.

Kalahari Melon Seed Oil (Citrullus lanatus)

Featuring excellent emollient and nourishing properties, we source our Kalahari melon from the Kalahari Desert, where the pure oil is cold-pressed from the protein-rich dark brown seeds.

Labdanum Absolute (Cistus ladanifer)

Also known as rockrose, this beautiful shrub produces a highly fragranced viscous resin during the hot summer months. Labdanum is considered to be an excellent natural fixative, helping to maintain the fragrance of blends for longer.

Lavandin Essential Oil (Lavandula hybrida)

Less floral than lavender, but still loved for its distinctive, herbal fragrance and calming properties, Lavandin yields between five to ten times more oil than lavender. Our pure essential oil is obtained by steam distilling the flowers and stalk of the cultivated shrub.

Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia)

This comforting, calming oil has been widely used since the late 16th Century. Renowned for its wonderful, calming aroma, recent research has shown the benefits of this versatile oil help induce a restful night’s sleep. We source our lavender from the Mount Ventoux area of France and Bulgaria, for their superb quality.

Lemon Essential Oil (Citrus limon)

Lemon essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit. The oil is contained within glands in the outer layer of the peel. The oil is used in aromatherapy and has a refreshing and uplifting effect, and is sometimes referred to as 'the sunshine oil'. Studies have shown that dispersing lemon oil into the atmosphere helps improve concentration; in Japan it is used in this way and is said to reduce typing errors in the workplace.

Lime flower (Tilia cordata)

Typically sourced from Serbia in Eastern Europe, the lime flower is wild-harvested once a year during the summer months whilst it is in bloom. The extract is historically renowned for its anti-inflammatory properties which are soothing on the skin.

Manuka Honey (Mel)

Renowned for its moisturising and antibacterial properties, we source our Manuka honey from New Zealand. Manuka honey is rich in methylglyoxal (MGO), which originates in the nectar of manuka flowers. It is the presence of MGO that makes Manuka special, giving it a level of antibacterial activity that far surpasses that of average honey.

Mandarin Essential Oil (Citrus nobilis)

Citrus reticulata (syn. C. nobilis), the mandarin orange, is a small to medium sized evergreen tree producing orange fruit with loose, ‘kid glove’ skins. Thorny, with slender twigs, the trees are transformed by fragrant white flowers in the early spring. From bloom to harvest takes between 6 and 10 months depending on where on the tree the fruit is: the closer to the outside of the tree the fruit is, the faster it ripens. Mandarin essential oil has an intensely sweet top note, with a rich, floral undertone reminiscent of neroli.

Melissa Essential Oil (Melissa officinalis)

Also known as lemon balm, melissa oil is extracted from the leaves of the plant. Our Melissa is grown by three generations of farmers on their farm in Essex, the smell during distillation is immense. This precious oil has soothing and toning properties.

Mangosteen peel extract (Garcinia mangostana)

Native to southeast Asia, mangosteen is a popular tropical fruit. Our mangosteen comes from India. The single sex (separate male and female) trees start bearing fruit at 5 to 10 years of age. Intriguingly, to date no male tree has ever been discovered. The peel and the fruit of mangosteen contain xanthones which are being investigated for their antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Mangosteen peel extract is part of a blend we use for its skin-plumping, firming and toning properties.

May Chang Essential Oil (Litsea cubeba)

May chang is the common name given to the fragrant essential oil from a small tropical tree native to China. The essential oil is produced from the tiny fruits, which resemble peppercorns. It is used as a perfumery ingredient for its sweet citrus odour which is similar to lemongrass but more refined.

Myrtle Essential Oil (Myrtus communis)

Myrtle is part of the same large plant family that includes eucalyptus and tea tree. The clear, fresh smell of this oil is believed to be slightly sedative and to help soothe feelings of anger, fear and despair. Myrtle has been used since the 16th Century for its beneficial skin properties. Eau d’ange (Angel’s Water), a popular Elizabethan skin lotion contained extracts of myrtle leaves and flowers.

Meadowfoam Seed Oil (Limnanthes alba)

With each seed harbouring 20-30% pure plant oil, meadowfoam is renowned for its excellent moisturising properties. We source our meadowfoam from a cooperative of farmers in the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA, where the fields take on the appearance of a mass of sweetly-scented white foam when in bloom. To obtain our GLA and antioxidant-rich oil, the shiny brown seeds of the flower are pressed.


Menthol is a crystalline substance with a characteristic odour that is commonly extracted from Mentha arvensis (cornmint) essential oil. Cornmint essential oil has a menthol content of between 70% and 77%: at this level the essential oil actually solidifies at room temperature. Menthol’s characteristic minty odour arises from traces of essential oil trapped within the crystals. Menthol feels cool when applied to our skin because it attaches to nerve receptors causing messages to be sent to our brain that our skin is being cooled.

Madagascan vanilla

Responsibly sourced from Madagascar, the flowers have to be pollinated by hand and when harvested, the seedpods are carefully cured for around 6 months to produce the distinctive rich, warm scent. Our fragrance house’s goal in Madagascar is to secure supply, ensuring full traceability and high quality through an exclusive partnership with 14 villages. The programme also includes actions on education, with 4 schools built in 4 different villages, and food crop autonomy.

Meadowsweet (Spiraea ulmaria)

The naturally astringent meadowsweet extract is renowned for its tightening, toning and anti-inflammatory properties. We source ours from Eastern Europe, typically from Poland, where the creamy-white flower is wild-harvested once a year whilst it is in bloom.

Neroli Essential Oil (Citrus aurantium amara)

Revered for its calming properties and uplifting fragrance, we source our neroli from Tunisia, where the precious essential oil is steam distilled from the white flowers of the bitter orange tree.

Nutmeg Essential Oil (Myristica fragrans)

Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) is an evergreen tree from the Spice Islands or Moluccas of Indonesia, with fragrant bell-shaped flowers on its outermost branches. The yellow nutmeg fruit is the only tropical fruit which produces two spices, nutmeg and mace. When ripe, the fruit splits in two, revealing a dark brown, shiny seed partially covered in a red, net-like structure, the aril, which is the source of mace. Nutmeg essential oil has a light, warm, spicy, fresh odour, with a rich, sweet, warm body note.

Orange Flower Water (Citrus aurantium v. amara)

Renowned for its delicate citrus fragrance, our orange flowers are sourced from Spain, where the exquisite floral water is produced as a by-product of the steam distillation process for creating neroli essential oil.

Olive Stone Granules (Olea Europaea Seed Powder)

Used for their exfoliating properties, olive stone granules help gently buff away dead skin cells. Our naturally biodegradable granules don’t pose a threat to the environment, and are sourced from Southern Europe, where they are made by crushing and size-grading olive stones, a by-product of the olive industry.

Oat Extract (Avena sativa)

Oats boast excellent emollient and skin-soothing properties due to the presence of avenanthramides, compounds that have a range of activity against irritated skin. We source our oats from the United Kingdom, where the extract is produced through extraction of dried oats.

Olive Leaf Extract (Olea europaea)

The leaves of the olive tree have antiseptic and calming properties and were used to lower fevers and blood pressure. Olives are also a rich source of Oleuropein, a polyphenol which has been shown to protect the skin from ageing.

Oakmoss (Evernia prunastri)

Hand-picked in Macedonia for the lichen part of the plant, oakmoss boasts olfactive notes of moss and forest, resulting in a warm and round aroma that’s leathery, woody and earthy.

Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans)

Osmanthus trees grow wildly in the Guangxi Province in China and once the flower is extracted, the absolute has a floral fruity note reminiscent of apricot, with olive and leathery effects.

Patchouli Essential Oil (Pogostemon cablin)

Patchouli has reviving and stimulating properties and is used by aromatherapists to help soothe skin and help calm stress. It is even reported to be a mild aphrodisiac! The sweet, spicy, heady odour of patchouli makes it a very popular fragrance ingredient.

Pomegranate Extract (Punica granatum)

The pomegranate is a neat, rounded shrub or small tree that produces red apple-sized fruits, which contain fleshy pink seeds. The name pomegranate comes from the old French ‘seed apple’. Pomegranate extract is used in products for its antioxidant properties. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals.

Peppermint Essential Oil (Mentha piperita)

Peppermint has been used for centuries for digestive problems and today peppermint tea is commonly drunk after meals, particularly in warm climates. Refreshing and invigorating, it helps to tone and stimulate the skin and makes a cooling, refreshing foot bath.

Petitgrain Essential Oil (Citrus aurantium v. amara)

This essential oil was originally obtained from the small green unripe fruits of the bitter orange tree. The name was retained after the leaves and twigs became the main source of the oil. Petitgrain has balancing and uplifting properties and helps to relieve tension.

Palmarosa Essential Oil (Cymbopogon martinii)

Palmarosa is a flowering grass that is native to India and is in the same family as Citronella and Lemongrass. The essential oil is distilled from the freshly dried leaves of the plant. It has a fresh, floral, sweet rosy scent similar to Rose Geranium and is often mistaken as such. Aromatherapists have used palmarosa oil for stress, nervous tension, grief and anger.

Pear seed extract (Pyrus communis)

The European pear has its origins in the Tian Shen mountains of China. More than 5,000 cultivated varieties exist, but only around 12 are commercially grown. Our organic pear seed extract is the by-product of the canned fruit and juice industries. Used over a period of time, pear seed extract has been shown to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and improve the texture and appearance of the skin surface. We use pear seed extract for its skin-toning and firming properties.

Pine Essential Oil (Pinus sylvestris)

Refreshing, stimulating and invigorating, this oil is taken from the needles of the Scots pine.


Pumice is formed from lava that is full of gas. The lava is ejected and shot through the air during an eruption where the gasses escape leaving the rock full of holes.

Passionflower Oil (Passiflora incarnata)

The passionflower takes its name from the stunning purple tinged yellow or pink flowers that are said to resemble Christ's crown of thorns from The Passion (the twelve stages of the cross). The flowers give way to large orange berries called passion fruit. Passionflower seed oil is extracted from the seeds contained within this 'fruit' and contains a high percentage of linoleic acid.

Propolis (Propolis wax)

Featuring strong skin-protecting properties, propolis is an antiseptic substance produced by bees for the defence of their hives against harmful bacteria, viruses and fungi.

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin)

A base note in many fragrances, patchouli essential oil has an extremely rich, sweet, herbaceous spiciness with a textured, warm woody note and earthy, slightly smoky undertones. We source ours from Indonesia, where leaves are dried for 3 days then gathered into bundles and stored before distillation. This storage allows a light fermentation process to release some key odour components of the plant.

Pink Pepper Berry Essential Oil (Schinus terebinthifolius)

Fresh and spicy with underlying woody facets, this unique fragrance note is reminiscent of pepper and elemi. We source our pink pepper from Madagascar, Mauritius and Reunion, where our pure essential oil is obtained by the cold extraction of crushed, dried berries.

Pomegranate Flower Extract (Punica granatum)

With strong antioxidant and firming properties, we source our pomegranate flowers from India, where they are harvested by hand in May and June before the extract is produced by macerating the flowers.

Persian Silk Tree Extract (Albizia julibrissin)

Used for its refreshing and brightening properties, as well as its ability to even skin tone, we source our Persian silk tree from farmers in China, where the bark of the tree is macerated in water to create our extract.

Paracress Flower Extract (Spilanthes acmella)

Used for its ability to help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by firming the skin, we source our paracress from South Africa, where the flowers are hand-picked before being extracted to create our ingredient.

Quince seed extract (Pyrus cydonia)

The quince is closely related to the apple and the pear. Quince trees are hardy, deciduous trees of the temperate zone, thriving and fruiting for more than 30 years. Their twisted shape is tamed by espaliering them against walls. The fruit has been a mainstay of diverse cuisines, appearing in paste or ‘cheese’, pickles, baked dishes, and a variety of marmalades. We use quince seed extract as part of a blend for its skin-toning and firming properties.

Rosemary Extract (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Used for its antioxidant properties, we source our rosemary from Spain, where the extract is filtered from the needle-shaped leaves of the plant.

Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora)

Distilled from the bark of a tall South American tree, this essential oil is prized for its mellow floral aroma. Rosewood has astringent and toning properties and is a renowned pick me up.

Rosehip Seed Oil (Rosa rubiginosa)

Famous for its excellent moisturising properties, rosehip seed oil is rich in essential fatty acids and helps enhance the barrier function of the skin while improving moisture retention. We source our rosehips from Lesotho, in the highlands of South Africa, where the oil is pressed from the seeds of the bright red fruit.

Red algae extract (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

Research confirms red algae’s ability to help build an effective barrier against dryness, flattening the cuticle so that each hair is sleeker and softer. Hand-harvested from plantations in the ocean, red algae is used in Botanical Shine Treatment for these hydrating and barrier-forming properties.

Rose Petal Oil Rosa damascene

In a traditional rose oil, 90% of the essential oil comes from the petals and 10% comes from the structural parts of the blossom. By removing the structural parts, and working to capture the most volatile notes in the distillation process, the rose petal essential oil obtained more closely represents the fragrance of the rose flower.

Rice Bran Oil

Obtained from the germ and inner husk of rice grains, rice bran oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic and linoleic acids. It is also rich in natural antioxidants, Vitamin E (tocopherol) and gamma-oryzanol. The oil helps balance the skin’s natural barrier, providing nourishing fatty acids and natural antioxidants

Rhubarb Extract (Rheum rhaponticium)

Renowned for its ability to positively influence the moisturisation of the skin, we source our rhubarb from Poland and Bulgaria, where the roots are hand-picked and dried with hot air, before being extracted to create our hydrating ingredient.

Rock Rose Essential Oil (Cistus ladaniferus)

Loved for its divine ambery, woody fragrance, we source our rock rose from Andalusia, Spain, where the leaves and twigs are harvested before being subjected to vacuum fractionation to obtain the concrete, which is then purified to become absolute.

Red ginger (Zingiber officinale)

In fragrance, red ginger imparts a zesty top, as well as bringing a generous freshness to woody accords. Ours is sourced from Laos, where our fragrance house have implemented initiatives to help improve community living conditions and revenues.

Soap Bark Extract (Quillaja saponaria)

A gentle, yet effective natural cleanser, soap bark contains saponins, which are detergent compounds found in certain plants that foam when mixed with water. We source our soap bark extract from wild-harvested raw materials obtained from FSC certified forests in Chile.

Sweet Orange Essential Oil (Citrus aurantium dulcis)

Orange is a member of the large family of citrus fruits and has a characteristic aroma that cheers and uplifts the spirits.

Sodium Hyaluronate

Sodium hyaluronate is a source of hyaluronic acid. Its name is derived from the Greek word hualos, meaning glass because of its transparent, glassy appearance. Hyaluronic acid is a natural skin cell component, found in the deepest levels of the dermis. It is able to hold 200 times its weight in water, which makes it an excellent moisturiser. It is found more in younger skins with levels declining over the years.

Self-Heal Extract (Prunella vulgaris)

With inherent soothing properties, self-heal is a herbaceous perennial with a distribution that spans the northern hemisphere. To obtain our extract, the leaves of the plant are macerated in water for 7 days.

Sausage Tree extract (Kigelia africana)

The sausage tree is widespread in tropical Africa. The common name comes from the shape of the fruit which look like large sausages and can each weigh up to 12 kilos. Our fruit comes from the shores of Lake Malawi. The company harvesting it ensures that both the collectors and community benefit from the wild harvest, while leaving enough behind for the animals. We use sausage tree extract for its skin-toning and firming properties.

Shea Butter

Shave Grass Extract (Equisetum arvense)

With a strong profile of flavonoids, tannins, silicic acid and silicates, shave grass has skin-toning properties. Our shave grass is wild-harvested in Croatia, where the ingredient is extracted from the leaves of the plant.

Sweet Almond Oil (Prunus dulcis)

This light emollient oil produced from almond kernels helps keep the skin soft and smooth.

Sandalwood Essential Oil (Santalum album)

As one of the oldest incense materials, (it was in use at least 4,000 years ago), precious sandalwood oil was often referred to as "Liquid Gold". Its subtle, woody, balsamic odour helps instil a sense of calm and well-being and when used as part of an oil blend, it offers a tension-relieving pick-me-up. It is one of the most calming incenses and therefore one of the most popular for use in meditation for its ability to compose the mind and enhance mental clarity.

St John’s Wort Oil (Hypericum perforatum)

This cheerful yellow flower is not surprisingly known as the ‘sunshine herb’. It has a gentle, soothing effect on the skin.

Sweet Orange Fruit Extract (Citrus aurantium dulcis)

Used for its ability to promote shine, we source this pleasantly fresh ingredient from sweet oranges grown in Sicily, where the extract is pressed from the fruit.

Sunflower Oil (Helianthus annuus)

This vibrant plants Latin name comes from the Greek ‘helios’ meaning sun and ‘anthos’ meaning flower. It is an incredibly versatile plant recognized worldwide for its ornamental and economic importance. The oil produced from the seeds contains relatively high levels of vitamin E and is a beneficial ingredient in moisturising skin treatments.

Sumac wax (Rhus succedeanea)

The principal ingredient in the ceremonial hair wax used by Japanese sumo wrestlers and geishas, sumac wax has been used for its hair-taming and management properties for centuries. Sumac wax is used in Botanical Shine Intensive Treatment to help increase combability, manageability and improve the condition of frizzy, coarse or very dry hair.


Saffron has long been used in traditional medicine therapies, but we have captured its sensual, complex fragrance, derived from the luminous yellow-orange stamens of the precious saffron crocus.

Shea Butter

Shea Butter (Butyrospermum parkii)

Renowned for its excellent emollient properties and ability to help improve the barrier function of the skin, we source our shea butter from West Africa, where the pulp of the fruit is removed to reveal the kernel, which is boiled and dried in the sun before being shelled for pressing.

Tree moss extract

Tree moss is the name given to the absolute produced from lichens collected from a variety of trees. It is a dark coloured oil with a woody, earthy odour that is used in fragrance blends. It is also a useful natural fixative in perfumery, this means that it is used to help maintain the fragrance of a blend for a longer period.

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium Dioxide occurs naturally as the mineral 'Rutile' but it is almost always coloured due to contamination with materials such as Iron Oxides. Titanium Dioxide is very effective at reflecting UV light and hence ideal for use as a component in sun protection products.

Tonka Bean Absolute (Dipteryx odorata)

Tonka bean absolute is produced from the beans of a large tree, native to South America, which grows over 120 feet high. Tonka bean has a soft sweet odour reminiscent of hay and coconut and is often used as a natural fixative in perfumery; this means that it is used to help maintain the fragrance of a blend for a longer period.

Tea Tree Essential Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)

This powerful essential oil comes from the leaves and the twigs of the Australian tea tree. Originally used in Aboriginal medicine it is now used widely by aromatherapists and herbalists utilising its antibacterial properties for a variety of skin conditions.

Tiare (Gardenia taitensis)

Native to Tahiti, the magical tiare flower only blossoms on a single day and has each of its magnificent, white blooms carefully hand harvested to ensure they are picked at exactly the right time.

Vanilla Absolute (Vanilla planifolia)

The familiar rich, warm scent of vanilla comes from the seedpods of a plant from the orchid family. Vanilla is believed to be calming and relaxing and to soothe feelings of anger, frustration and irritability. The flowers have to be pollinated by hand. When harvested, the seedpods are carefully cured for around six months to produce the distinctive odour, which makes vanilla extremely expensive and for this reason much of the vanilla used today is synthetically produced. We use only natural vanilla.

Vanilla Extract (Vanilla planifolia)

Responsibly sourced from Madagascar, the flowers have to be pollinated by hand and when harvested, the seedpods are carefully cured for around 6 months to produce the distinctive rich, warm scent. Our fragrance house’s goal in Madagascar is to secure supply, ensuring full traceability and high quality through an exclusive partnership with 14 villages. The programme also includes actions on education, with 4 schools built in 4 different villages, and food crop autonomy.

Vetiver (Vetiveria)

Vetiver such as ours, which comes from the islands of Haiti and Réunion, has a floral aspect and is considered to be of a higher quality than oil from other sources. This essential oil has a strong woody smell; deep, humid with green earthy accents, it adds a mysterious dimension to woody bases. Extensively used in perfumery, not only as a fixative but also as a fragrance ingredient in its own right, vetiver oil is a component in fougère, oriental and chypre bases as well as moss and woody notes.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

This antioxidant helps protect skin against free radical damage caused by pollution and the sun’s radiation. We only use premium natural source vitamin E which is up to three times more potent than the synthetic variety.

Vetiver Essential Oil (Vetiveria zizanioides)

Vetiver essential oil has a strong woody scent; deep, humid with green earthy accents, it adds a mysterious dimension to woody bases. Extensively used in perfumery, not only as a fixative but also as a fragrance ingredient in its own right, vetiver oil is a component in fougère, oriental and chypre bases as well as moss and woody notes. We source our vetiver from the Indonesian Island of Java and the islands of Haiti and Réunion, for their high quality.

Vetiver Essential Oil

Wheatgerm Oil (Triticum vulgare)

This oil comes from the seed or ‘germ’ of the wheat stalk. Wheatgerm makes an excellent addition to massage oil as it contains high levels of vitamin E, which is a powerful antioxidant.

West African Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa)

Shea nuts are wild-harvested in the forested savannah of Africa in an area that extends west-east for approximately 5,000 kilometers between the latitudes of 11 and 14 degrees north of the equator. Our West African shea is from the Tung Teiya Women’s Shea Association in Ghana. Eleven women’s groups, comprising of 450 women, generate income from harvesting shea, valuing and conserving their semi-arid ecosystem. Shea butter improves the elasticity of the skin and enhances the barrier function of the epidermis, helping it to retain moisture.

White lupin protein (Lupinus albus)

An annual bean, the white lupin produces flowers in an upright spike, with each blossom being replaced by a pod containing a number of beans. A thousand beans weigh a kilo (2.2lbs). The white lupin is among the most widely cultivated of the lupins, and has been key subsistence crop for 3,000 years. The white lupin is related to the colourful ornamental lupins that grow in gardens. We use white lupin bean as part of a blend for its skin-plumping, firming and toning properties.

Witch Hazel Water (Hamamelis virginiana)

Legendary for its soothing and toning properties, witch hazel is native to the eastern coast of North America, and our witch hazel water is distilled from the chopped, macerated leaves of the flowering shrub.

White Clay (Kaolin)

Well-known for its ability to absorb excess oil from the skin, we use French white clay to help gently cleanse and balance.

Winged Kelp Extract (Alaria esculenta)

Rich in essential fatty acids, omegas 3 and 6 and sterols, this preparation of sea algae helps moisturise, revitalise and plump. We source our winged kelp from sustainable plantations in Brittany, France, where the extract is ground and filtered from the whole plant.

Ylang Ylang Essential Oil (Cananga odorata)

The name ylang ylang comes from the Malay for 'flower of flowers'. Its nickname 'poor man's jasmine' does not do justice to its powerfully sweet, rich heady fragrance. When added to the bath the fragrant aroma can help to lift the spirits and may even have aphrodisiac properties!

Yarrow Extract (Achillea millefolium)

Traces of this native European herb have been found in Neanderthal burial caves, suggesting its usage goes back 60,000 years. Yarrow was for centuries an indispensable medicinal herb. Native American tribes believed it could cure everything from sore throats and toothache to indigestion and bowel complaints. We use it for its astringent and soothing properties.

Yangu Oil (Calodendrum capense)

Belonging to the citrus family, yangu trees are native to Africa from northern Kenya to eastern South Africa. Clusters of beautiful pink flowers have made the tree an ornamental favourite in sub-tropical regions. The shiny black seeds from the fruit contain around 60% oil. Being an emollient, yangu seed oil helps to smooth and soften the hair shaft.

Ylang ylang (Cananga odorata (ylang ylang) flower oil)

Both powerfully floral and intensely sweet, ylang ylang fades into a softer, slightly spicy and balsamic sweet, creamy floral note. It pushes the spicy note of the Indian jasmine and reinforces the other flowers. The blossoms used for the essential oil in Botanical Essence No.100 are handpicked from plantation-grown trees in the Comoros Islands. The yellow ylang ylang blossom is so delicate that it is distilled in small stills to avoid the flowers crushing each other and impacting the fragrance.

Zinc Oxide

Zinc Oxide occurs naturally in small quantities as the mineral 'Zincite'. Zinc Oxide reflects UV light very effectively and is hence ideal for use as a component in sun protection products.